Want to know more about the European capitals? Europe is home to some of the most classic capital cities in the world, and here’s a list of all capitals in Europe from A to Z.
European Capitals in Alphabetical order
The Dutch capital is famous for its canals, art museums, and narrow houses with classic dutch architecture. Amsterdam is regarded as one of the most liberal capitals in Europe and the city has a population of 1.1 million people.
Amsterdam is also one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world. Another fun fact about the city is that there is statistically one bike per resident.
Read more: Interesting facts about Netherlands
Andorra la Vella
The Capital of Andorra has a population of only 20 430 residents but is visited by more than 10 million tourists every year. There are several duty-free shops here and visitors can buy everything from tobacco and alcohol to perfumes and high-tech products at low prices.
Some regard Athens as the cradle of modern civilization, and while much has happened since ancient Greece, Athens continues to have an important position.
The history of the city goes back at least 3400 years and is one of the oldest major cities in the world. Currently, there are more than 3 million people living in the Athens metro area.
Read more: Interesting facts about Greece
The capital of Azerbaijan is home to about 1.1 million people, and despite the fact that the country is rated as a poor country compared to other European countries, Baku is remarkably modern with some impressive skyscrapers and buildings.
The city also has a medieval walled old town and lots of other historical buildings.
Another European capital that is quite underrated when it comes to tourism is Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. The city is home to 1.7 million people and is famous for its lively nightlife.
Berlin is one of the major capitals in Europe with a population of 3.5 million people. The city is famous for attracting startups as well as hipsters who come here for the nightlife, artsy scenes, and to connect with other like-minded people.
It was also here that the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, which divided West- and East Germany since World War II.
Read more: Interesting facts about Germany
Some people might think that Zurich is the capital of Switzerland, but it’s not. Bern is the Swiss capital with a population of 140 000 people, and it is famous for its old town along the river.
Read more: Interesting facts about Switzerland
This is yet another underrated destination when it comes to tourism. Bratislava is the capital of Slovakia with a population of 427 000 people. The old town is filled with beautiful architecture, and one of the highlights is Michael’s Gate as seen in the picture below.
Bratislava also has lots of charming cafes and bars. The price level is low compared to other European capitals, and tourists will get a good value for their money here.
Brussels is the capital of Belgium and home to the headquarters of the European Union. It’s a beautiful city with a population of 2 million people. From here, you are well-connected by flights, trains, and buses to almost everywhere on the European continent.
The Romanian capital Bucharest has a population of about 2 million people. It’s especially famous for its tree-lined boulevards and Belle Epoque buildings.
Bucharest is often nicknamed the “little Paris” and it’s a lively metropolitan city.
Budapest is often cited as the Spa capital of the world because of its many geothermal baths and springs. The city has a population of 1.74 million people, and in recent years tourism has been booming here.
Tourists still get a good value for their money here, and you can stay at luxury hotels and eat out at restaurants for low prices compared to other major capitals in Europe.
Budapest is also a hub for transport across the continent, and the city is well-connected to many cities in the world by flights, and to Europe by trains and buses in addition to flights.
Read more: Interesting facts about Hungary
Chisinau has a population of 635 994 people and is the capital of Moldova. The city is also known as Kishinev
The Danish capital is also the largest city in Denmark with a population of 1.3 million people. It’s a multi-cultural city with a long history where every neighborhood has its own story and characteristics.
Nyhavn is the most popular tourist area in Copenhagen and is known for its colorful houses and outdoor restaurants serving up Danish beer and Smørrebrød.
Read more: Interesting facts about Denmark
Dublin has become a famous party capital, thanks to the lively area known as Temple Bar. The city is home to 1.2 million residents and has a large share of students.
It’s often cited as a small capital city with a big feel.
Country: Republic of Ireland
Helsinki is the capital of Finland and has a population of almost 1.3 million people, making it one of the largest cities in the Nordic region. It’s also regarded as one of the most liveable cities in the world, and the atmosphere here is very pleasant.
Read more: Interesting facts about Finland
Also known as Kyiv, the capital of Ukraine is home to more than 2.8 million residents. The city is especially famous for its ancient churches that can be found all over Kyiv.
Lisbon has quickly emerged as one of the most liveable European capitals, and many foreigners are attracted by the good standard of living at a low cost compared to other cities in Europe.
Lisbon is the capital of Portugal and is home to a population of 500 000 people within the city’s administrative limits and 2.8 million people in the total urban area.
The Slovenian capital is one of my favorite cities in Europe. Ljubljana has a small-town feeling although it’s still a big city that is home to about 300 000 people. From here, you can easily reach other popular places in Slovenia, such as Lake Bled or the Slovenian Alps.
London is the capital of the UK, and one of the most visited cities in the world. The city has a population of more than 8 million if you include all of Greater London.
It is famous for being home to the Queen as well as Big Ben, Buckingham Palace, Tower Bridge, and the red double-deckers that have become a true icon of London.
Country: United Kingdom
Luxembourg city is home to just 119 214 people, and it’s one of the de facto capitals of the European Union. The city is home to a large number of expats and is also famous for being one of the richest cities on the planet.
Madrid is one of the major European capitals with a population of 3.3 million, but the population of the Madrid metropolitan area is estimated to have 6.5 million residents.
Madrid is famous for its grand architecture, boulevards, and of course being home to the most successful football team in the world – Real Madrid.
Read more: Interesting facts about Spain
Minsk is the capital of Belarus and has a population of 1.7 million people. It’s a big city famous for its Soviet-style architecture.
Monaco is a tiny principality and one of the smallest countries in the world with a population of just 40 000 people. However, it’s also one of the most densely populated places in the world due to the small size of Monaco.
There is no official capital of this principality, but Monte Carlo is the largest district even though the city-state of Monaco is divided into four areas.
If you don’t include Istanbul as a European city, then Moscow will claim the title as the most populated city in Europe with more than 12 million people living in the Russian capital.
Moscow is famous for the Red Square, St Basil’s cathedral, Kreml, and having some of the most beautiful metro stations in the world.
Read more: Interesting facts about Russia
The Norwegian capital is beautifully located next to the sea, and while it has a modern feel to it, there is also a small-town feeling while strolling around the different neighborhoods of Oslo.
Oslo is home to about 1 million people, which also makes it one of the largest cities in Scandinavia.
Read more: Interesting facts about Norway
Paris is often cited as one of the most romantic cities in the world, and it’s heavily featured in movies that display the atmosphere and many cafes that are scattered throughout the city.
Paris is also one of the largest European capitals with a population of 2.1 million people and an even larger metropolitan area. It is also here where you can admire the Eiffel tower as well as the Arc de Triomphe.
Read more: Interesting facts about France
Podgorica is not one of the most visited among the European capitals, but it’s the economic and educational hub of Montenegro as well as its capital.
When the country was a part of Yugoslavia, the city was known as Titograd. Historically it has also been at the crossroad of important trade routes thanks to its central location in Montenegro.
One of the most impressive historical capitals in Europe. Prague has a population of 1.3 million people and is known for its beautiful architecture, cheap beer, lovely restaurants, and lively nightlife.
Charles Bridge, the Dancing House, and the Prague Castle are just some of the most popular places to visit in Prague.
Country: Czech Republic
While Kosovo isn’t technically approved as a sovereign country by all countries in the world, the majority sees it as an independent country, including Sweden which announced its approval years back, so I will still list Pristina as a European capital.
Pristina is home to more than 200 000 people.
Most of Iceland’s population lives in the capital Reykjavik. It’s a lively little city with lots of restaurants, bars, and shops despite its relatively small size. It’s also the major hub for tourism in the country, from where many tours in Iceland have their starting point.
Read more: Interesting facts about Iceland
Riga is the capital of Latvia and has a population of more than 640 000 people. It was announced as one of the European Capitals of Culture in 2014, and it’s famous for its art nouveau architecture as well as spa facilities.
Riga is truly a beautiful city, and the old town is lovely to stroll around.
Rome is nicknamed the eternal city, and while the Roman Empire fell apart, Rome continued to exist. Today, the city has a population of more than 4.3 million people.
Rome is one of the most visited capitals in Europe and the city is home to many historical places, beautiful squares, and impressive architecture.
Read more: Interesting facts about Italy
San Marino is a microstate that is considered as one of the oldest republics in the world. It has a rich population, which is completely surrounded by Italy and the Appalachian mountains.
San Marino city has a population of just 4000 people.
Country: San Marino
Yet another European capital that deserves more attention from international tourists. Mostar is the most visited city in Bosnia and Herzegovina, but Sarajevo, which is the capital is also worth a visit.
It tells a lot of history, and in recent times it has started to develop even though it keeps its charm and atmosphere.
Country: Bosnia and Herzegovina
Skopje is the capital of North Macedonia, which recently changed its name from the Republic of Macedonia. The city has a population of about 500 000 people.
Skopje is located at the bank of the Vardar River, and the city is full of history.
Country: North Macedonia
Sofia is the capital of Bulgaria and is home to about 1.2 million residents. The city has one of the lowest costs of living compared to other capitals in Europe.
The Swedish capital is home to more than 1 million people and has long been an attractive city to live in. Stockholm is the economic center in Sweden, and the city is sometimes referred to as the Venice of the North, thanks to the city canals.
The Stockholm Archipelago is also one of the most famous places to visit in Sweden.
Read more: Interesting facts about Sweden
Tallinn is the capital of Estonia and has a population of 434 000 people. The city is famous for its spa facilities and the historic old town, which is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Tbilisi is one of the lesser-known European Capitals that definitely deserve more attention. The Georgian capital is beautifully situated along the Kura River. The city has a population of 1.5 million people and was founded already in the 5th century.
While the south of Albania is attracting more and more tourists every year, the Albanian capital Tirana remains a hidden gem. The city is still developing, but it has become famous for its lively nightlife and low costs of living.
Read more: Interesting facts about Albania
Vaduz is one of the smallest capitals in Europe with a population of just 5 500 people. It’s the capital of Liechtenstein, which is a German-speaking principality, situated between Switzerland and Austria.
The walled city of Valletta was founded in the 16th century by the Knights of St. John. Today, it has a population of 440 000 people, which makes it one of the most densely populated cities in the world (7th) since the population share an area of just 122 square miles.
Valletta has kept its old charm and it was featured as one of the European capitals of Culture in 2018.
The Vatican city is home to one of the most influential people on the planet, the Pope. It is also here where you can visit St. Peter’s Basilica, which is one of the most impressive churches in the world.
The Vatican only has 1000 residents and is, therefore, the least populated country in the world.
Country: The Vatican
The Austrian capital is known for its Opera house as well as beautiful palaces. Vienna is definitely one of the most beautiful capitals in Europe, and you can notice the remains of the Austro-Hungarian empire.
Vienna has a population of 1.8 million people.
Vilnius is the capital city of Lithuania and has a population of 723 000 people. The old town of Vilnius is declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and in 2009, the city served as a European Capital of Culture.
The Polish capital is one of my favorite cities in Europe, and it has a great mix of modern and historical. There is some impressive architecture as well as artsy metro stations, and overall, you just get a good value for your money here.
Warsaw is one of the European capitals that has the lowest cost of living.
Read more: Interesting facts about Poland
Last but not least of the European capitals, Zagreb, which is the capital city in Croatia with a population of 800 000 people. The city is famous for its Christmas market, St Mark’s church, and being home to one of the best Croatian football teams – Dinamo Zagreb.
Read more: Interesting facts about Croatia
Capitals in Europe listed by country from A to Z
|Andorra||Andorra la Vella|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Sarajevo|
|San Marino||San Marino|
Other European capitals in non-sovereign states
- Belfast (Northern Ireland)
- Cardiff (Wales)
- Edinburgh (Scotland)
- Gibraltar (British overseas territory)
- Nuuk (Greenland)
- Torshavn (Faroe Islands)
More information about the capitals of Europe
In total, there are 52 European capital cities, but only 45 of them are capital cities of sovereign states. The most populated capital in Europe is Moscow.
The smallest of all European capitals is the Vatican city, which is also the capital of the smallest country in the world.
How many European capitals did you know before reading this list? Leave a comment below!